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外文關鍵詞:Tainan County
外文關鍵詞:Sinhua Township
中文摘要:「陰廟」的字面意義給人的第一印象或感覺,通常是陰森恐怖和毛骨悚然。因為陰廟在一般人的認知上來說,是鬼魅聚集之地,充滿著污穢、邪祟,因此避之猶恐不及。其實,每一座陰廟建造的背後,都有其曲折的過程,每一個陰廟中所奉祀的鬼、神,都有一段鮮為人知的苦難故事。試著去接近它、了解它,我們會尊崇,至少悲憫這些無祀孤魂的作為和遭遇。人生難免一死,陰廟的存在或許也能讓我們自度「一口氣不來,到何處安身立命?」的深切思惟。 本文係由筆者秉持一般對陰廟的初始態度出發,藉由探查、訪問,篩選、統計,以紀錄在新化地區的陰(祠)廟分布區域及總數,並先以堪稱粗略的方式---奉祀鬼神稱呼來加以分類,試圖從紛紜複雜的各式陰(祠)廟中找出每一類名稱相近者其間之異同性質而敘述討論。 既而以祠廟之外觀、形式及營建之材料、方法等為探討元素,以時間為參考軸作一初步歸納,劃分為三個時期:草創期、發展期(又分磚石、木料時期及民居形式時期)、宮廟時期來說明陰(祠)廟隨著時間與環境的改變,其與人群聚落的相對應關係也會跟著變遷。一路由草創期、發展期到宮廟期,廟貌的變異,同時也對應著鬼神地位的提升。隨著神格的提升,祠廟內的祀器也不斷增加與擴充,這些祀器在使用上意涵著人群信眾對祀神的祭祀觀。八仙彩、天公爐、長明燈、環香、金爐等陸續出現,代表其與庄、大廟神明之差異越來越少、距離越來越近。廟體加寬加大後,信眾與鬼神也開始有更多的準備與發揮空間,在祠廟四周置設各種防衛、厭勝物,來營造一個具有神聖意義的空間,這個空間透過祠內、廟外、屋頂、四周的防衛物加以貞定。這些都能證明祠廟脫離鬼趣、進入神境的特殊意義。 第三部分討論新化地區陰祠廟的特色,粗略提出有些祠廟至今尚保存「骨灰罈」與祠廟合一的原始特色,並透過這些祠廟的活動來看信眾對枯骨的態度。另一方面專設討論平埔族原始信仰與漢族俗信在近山聚落相互影響進而融合的軌跡,同時也對原住民族的祖靈信仰沒落危機作一些反省與思考。再則從陰(祠)廟目前信眾的崇拜儀禮、習慣中找出幾項重要指標,如神像的出現、供品的完備、金銀楮錢的使用、聖誕日的產生、分香及香火袋的流傳等現象來驗證供奉對象由鬼而神在位階上的改變跡象。在此同時,也回頭分析新化地區陰(祠)廟祭祀對象的多元特色,並以其他專家學者的研究所得來檢視其中的性質異同。 最後討論陰(祠)廟與人群的關係,陰廟需要人群的供養與香火而人群需要透過一些定期與不定期的活動來增添過節色彩、豐富生活內涵。其中定期活動如歲時祭祀、謝神之酬戲、乞龜、參香、繞境、降乩等;不定期活動則為文康活動與占卜等,另外陰廟也作為一般庄、大廟的信仰輔助場域、陽間與陰間的中介角色。因應特定信眾在庄、大廟神明指示之特殊需要而作之祭改、補運、接受祈願等個別需求活動。這些功能性活動都能拉近祠廟與人群的親密關係,讓祠廟成為信眾在生活中不可或缺之精神撫慰來源,同時也為移風易俗盡一份力量。 走過蜿蜒之鄉野道路、看盡陰廟之萬千容顏,聽聞每一個悱惻動人的故事,讓人盡棄往日成見,重新看待此一民間信仰的主流面相。
英文摘要:For the general public, the first impression or the feeling of Ghost Temple is usually ghostly, bloodcurdling and absolutely terrified. The reason why people fear and keep away from them is because Ghost Temple is the place, which gathers ghosts, fills of filth and evil influence. Actually, at the beginning of building each ghost temple was always complicated. Inside each ghost temple, ghosts or gods are enshrined. No matter ghosts or gods, their life was a tragedy and the general public rarely knew their sufferings. Try to get closer and understand them, we’d worshipped them. At least, we’d shown our mercy to whatever they had done and suffered. Maybe it’s because ghost temples still exist nowadays, we would deeply concern and think about the saw “A storm may arise from a clear sky and nothing is certain but death!” The author started from the beginning thinking of Ghost Temple and worked on this research. By making inquiries about Ghost Temple, interviewing people who knows about them, summarizing the factors and statistics, the author has recorded the distribution and the amount of Ghost Temple, classifying the ghosts or the gods as their names with a rough estimate. As opinions vary, the names of the ghost and the god are really different. Try to describe, discuss and find out which names are similar and what are the differences between each ghost temple. Then, discuss them from the appearance and the style of the ghost temple, and building materials and architectural methods of the temple. Next, consult the years of the temple that we have found out we could categorize them into three different periods: The Beginning Period, The Developing Period, and The Temple Period. The developing period also could be separated into three periods: The Brick Period, The Wooden Period, and The Residential Period. During the Temple Period, because of the time and the environment changed, the relationships between Ghost Temple and the general public were also changed. From the beginning period, the developing period and the ghost temple period, you could find out the status of the ghost or god inside the temple are different, they changed along with the changing appearance of the temple. If the ghost’s status promoted, the sacrificial offerings number would increased and expanded. Using those kinds of sacrificial offerings means what people believe in ghosts and gods. Eight Fairies streamer, Heaven censer, Chang-Ming light, circlet joss stick, and golden censer came out one after another, the differences among big temples, sanctuaries, ghost temples, etc. are less and less, even the distance from the ghost temple and the place where people live is also getting closer and closer. The believers, the ghost, the sprit and the god started to have been having more and more space to prepare and to develop sacrificial offerings. Around the ghost temple they settle defenses and something which can scare away the spirit and ghosts, then they build a holy atmosphere space. Look out at this space, the appearance, the roof, and the defenses around the temple, we could make sure and prove to the general public that the impression of the ghost temple has already escaped from a ghostly place and has been a holy place. At the third part of this research, discuss the particular things of Ghost Temple in Shin Hua region, the author has raised some original things with a rough estimate from the ghost temple, which still keeps the urn and through the activities of the ghost temple, we could know what the believers’ attitudes of the skeleton and the urn are. In addition, set some discussants to discuss what would affect Ping Pu tribal belief and Han nationality folk religion and what makes them mix together nearby mountain area. Furthermore, make some introspection and think again why the aboriginal belief of ancestry has been declining. Then, start from what are the ceremonies and habits that believers adore, and find out several key points, such as the appearance of joss, a perfect set of sacrificial offerings, use paper money(which called gold paper money and silver paper money)to be burnt for gods or the ghost, start to have the birthday ceremony of the god, send incense and have pilgrimage pouches etc. Those things have shown the status have been changing from ghosts into gods. Meanwhile, it’s also the first time to analysis the characteristics of Ghost Temple in Xin Hua region that worship multiple idols and ghosts, discuss about them with specialists and find out the differences and similarities from other scholars’ researches. At the final part of this research, try to discuss the relationship between the ghost temple and the general public. Try to find out why the ghost temple needs pilgrims to enshrine, to worship and get more joss sticks. Why they have to make the atmosphere of the temple festival higher and higher through having some regular and some irregular temple fairs, which people can also increase human life. Some regular temple festivals, such as, to worship at the end of the year, to say thanks to goods with some pageant, Taiwanese folk opera, puppet show and shadow puppet show, to ask the gods for a turtle-shape cake which made of flour and stuffed in with some red beans by throwing woodblocks, burning joss sticks for good luck, Gods make a round of inspection for his or her followers on specific days, and the followers worship Gods by burning joss sticks and paper monkey, and letting firecracker which is a kind of event of folk religion and young wizard--Taiwan’s folk religion performance who is a person claims to be attached by spirits and is able to communicate between human and deity etc..; and some irregular festivals just like some entertainments and divinations. By the way, Ghost temple is also an assistant place of the shrine and big temples; it is a very important intermediary between Hades and this world. If the followers receive the message from the God of the big temple or the shrine, they would go to Ghost temples to look for some help, for example, like some special activities: worship the gods or the ghost, make up their fortune, have a wish etc. These kinds of activities establish a relationship with the ghost temple and the public, it could also console people’s mind and play the important role of the culture and the folk religions, too. Walking pass through a winding country roads, looking out all kinds of Ghost Temple and hearing a lot of touching stories from Ghost Temple would let the general public dispel their prejudices of Ghost temple, and would have a new impression of this folk religion.


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